1.    3 main types of muscle cells:


Examples   skeletal Muscle , Muscle cells like those lining of stomach, heart muscles.

2.   We target Skeletal muscle during aerobic and anaerobic training!.



TYPE 1 … Red muscle cells … SLOW TWITCH … ENDURANCE Muscle cells
These cells are characteristically:

  • thin muscle fibers
  • red in color (large amounts of myoglobin)
  • slow & sustained contraction
  • mitocondria is abundant
  • No accumulation of lactic acid
  • preforms sustained work for long periods without fatigue
    Slow & steady

 TYPE 2(a& b)


These cells are the ones we experience Hypertrophy & thats the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. It is distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number. Although hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two distinct processes, they frequently occur together,
These cells are characteristically:

  • thick muscle fibers
  • white in color (less myoglobin)
  • fast contraction
  • depends on anaerobic metabolism for energy (glycolyis)
  • Less Mitochondria
  • lactic acid accumulation by glycolysis
  • performs fast a strenous work for short period
    Fast but fatique quickly

3.    Understand the role of Fascia tissue:
So to build larger & stronger muscles we must understand how important the Facsia Tissue.  Fascia is a tough connective tissue surrounding every muscle, groups of muscle fibers, bone, nerve, blood vessel, and organ of the body, down to the cellular level forming a web … or envelope around these cells.


Bodybuilders work out their white muscle cells building up large amounts of lactic acid in the muscles which cause them to expand.  This expansion is limited however by how large the bladder of facial tissue is surrounding the muscles expands.  Bodybuilders think of this fascia as a bladder limiting muscle expansion (a bladder as opposed to a balloon) … Body builders work out building lactic acid in the muscle to what is called a pump and then a burn.  Think of the pump as the fascia tissue bladder filling to its limit with lactic acid and the burn as this bladder tearing or stretching larger (the burn).  Think of this tearing as the facial tissue expanding in size to make room for larger muscle cells or more muscle cells … expanding/tearing like a nylon stocking with thousands of minute holes which heal up leaving the bladder surrounding muscles and muscle fibers larger making room for larger and more muscle cells. Now you have larger muscles that are capable of more work when doing anaerobic exercise.

Think of Fascia like a big cobweb that runs throughout your entire body, covering every muscle fiber. It idoes not stretch, it’s the same material that makes up tendons, which attach muscle to bone, and ligaments, which attach bone to bone. It’s main job is to  protect the muscle and allowing for muscle elasticity. Its interconnected nature means that everything in the body is connected to everything else. When you are injured or compromised in any way, it can affect tissues that are far from the original site of the injury or impairment.  This is often why, as ath;etes, we feel pain in places unrelated to our actual injury!
When an injury occurs, like a muscle pull or sprain, the muscle will generally heal very quickly. However, the fascia, which has also been pulled out of alignment, never returns to its normal positioning. This can cause other areas to overcompensate for the initial injured area, pulling them out of alignment and thus creating new injuries. What started as a simple ankle sprain, without proper treatment, can lead to knee or hip pain.

Fascia, or connective tissue, has little to no blood supply and therefore its healing capabilities are limited. When you suffer an injury, the fascial tissue will remain distorted until manually corrected.

Understanding this … hard training atheletes require a stretching regeime that keep the body balanced!  As cyclists we protect for facsia injuries in the lower back, by insuring the glutes, periformis, IT Band, psoas, quadratus lumborum, and erector spinae, hamsrtings, quads are stretched after hard training!

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4.  Experiencing lowerback pain and it is disk related or alignment related …
consider seeing a practitioner.  These are some of the practitioner disciplines my wife Lori & I have used from time to time to deal with Facsia issues/ injuries before they have become so problematic that they hinder our training!

Chiropractic Doctor for a system of complementary medicine based on the diagnosis and manipulative treatment of misalignments of the joints, especially those of the spinal column, which are held to cause other disorders by affecting the nerves, muscles, and organs.

Massage therapy is manual manipulation of soft body tissues (muscle, connective tissue, tendons and ligaments) to enhance a person’s health and well-being. There are dozens of types of massage therapy methods (also called modalities).

Muscle Therapist or Neuromuscular therapy (NMT) is an approach to soft tissue manual therapy in which quasi-static pressure is applied to soft tissue to stimulate skeletal striated muscle.  These are therapist trained to deal with injuries!

Active release technique (ART) is a soft tissue system/movement-based technique developed and patented by P. Michael Leahy. It claims to treat problems with muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia and nerves. There is little evidence to support its efficacy.
Muscle related … not releasing … accupuncture

Rolfing … through soft tissue manipulation and movement education,Rolfers affect body posture and structure over the long-term. Unlike massage, which often focuses on relaxation and relief of muscle discomfort, Rolfing is aimed at improving body alignment and functioning.

Egoscue Method is postural therapy. We believe that pain, both chronic and acute, is due to misalignment in the body as it loses its designed posture. The human body is designed to move!

Fascia tissue stretching tecnigues are routinely used during my training and with my personal training clients to promote growth, recovery and prevent fascia injuries.